Tell us then, what do You think? Is it permissible [according to Jewish law and tradition] to pay a poll-tax to Caesar, or not?”
But Jesus, aware of their malice, asked, “Why are you testing Me, you hypocrites?
Show me the coin used for the poll-tax.” And they brought Him a denarius [a day’s wage].
And Jesus said to them, “Whose likeness and inscription is this?”
They said, “[The Emperor Tiberius] Caesar’s.” Then He said to them, “Then pay to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s; and to God the things that are God’s.”
Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God [granted by His permission and sanction], and those which exist have been put in place by God.
Therefore whoever resists [governmental] authority resists the ordinance of God. And those who have resisted it will bring judgment (civil penalty) on themselves.
For [civil] authorities are not a source of fear for [people of] good behavior, but for [those who do] evil. Do you want to be unafraid of authority? Do what is good and you will receive approval and commendation.
For he is God’s servant to you for good. But if you do wrong, [you should] be afraid; for he does not carry the [executioner’s] sword for nothing. He is God’s servant, an avenger who brings punishment on the wrongdoer.
Therefore one must be subject [to civil authorities], not only to escape the punishment [that comes with wrongdoing], but also as a matter of principle [knowing what is right before God].
For this same reason you pay taxes, for civil authorities are God’s servants, devoting themselves to governance.
Pay to all what is due: tax to whom tax is due, customs to whom customs, respect to whom respect, honor to whom honor.
Servants, in everything obey those who are your masters on earth, not only with external service, as those who merely please people, but with sincerity of heart because of your fear of the Lord.
Whatever you do [whatever your task may be], work from the soul [that is, put in your very best effort], as [something done] for the Lord and not for men,
knowing [with all certainty] that it is from the Lord [not from men] that you will receive the inheritance which is your [greatest] reward. It is the Lord Christ whom you [actually] serve.
Remind people to be subject to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready and willing to do good,
Submit yourselves to [the authority of] every human institution for the sake of the Lord [to honor His name], whether it is to a king as one in a position of power,
or to governors as sent by him to bring punishment to those who do wrong, and to praise and encourage those who do right.
For it is the will of God that by doing right you may silence (muzzle, gag) the [culpable] ignorance and irresponsible criticisms of foolish people.
Live as free people, but do not use your freedom as a cover or pretext for evil, but [use it and live] as bond-servants of God.
Show respect for all people [treat them honorably], love the brotherhood [of believers], fear God, honor the king.
Servants, be submissive to your masters with all [proper] respect, not only to those who are good and kind, but also to those who are unreasonable.
For this finds favor, if a person endures the sorrow of suffering unjustly because of an awareness of [the will of] God.
After all, what kind of credit is there if, when you do wrong and are punished for it, you endure it patiently? But if when you do what is right and patiently bear [undeserved] suffering, this finds favor with God.
For it is the time [destined] for judgment to begin with the household of God; and if it begins with us, what will the outcome be for those who do not respect or believe or obey the gospel of God?